The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS EU requires the Management Board to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and costs. Estimates and underlying assumptions are based on historical data and other factors considered as reliable under the circumstances, and their results provide grounds for an assessment of the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities which cannot be based directly on any other sources. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected.
The most significant estimates and assumptions made primarily related to the following:
Classification of lease agreements
The Group classifies leasing agreements as operating or financial based on the assessment as to what extent the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of a leased asset lie with the lessor or the lessee. The assessment is based on the economical substance of each transaction. The Group concludes agreements for the rental of reception equipment (set-top boxes, modems and routers) to its customers in the course of its business operations. These lease agreements are classified as operating leases as the Group holds substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the reception equipment. The Group also provides vehicles under operating lease agreements which were initially leased from MLeasing and recognized as financial leasing.
As a part of its business activities the Group has concluded agreements with Eutelsat for the rental of transponder capacity as well as an agreement with Nagravision for the lease of conditional access system (including SMART cards). These agreements were classified as operating leases as Eutelsat and Nagravision hold substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to the ownership of the transponders and the conditional access system. The Group also entered into land lease agreements (locations for network infrastructure) and leases of office and other premises which are classified as operating leases. For more information see note 32.
Depreciation rates of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with definite useful lives
Depreciation rates are based on the expected economic useful lives of property, plant and equipment (including reception equipment provided to customers under lease agreements) and intangible assets (including customer relationships and Plus brand). The expected economic useful lives are reviewed on an annual basis based on the experience of the entity.
The economic useful lives of the set-top boxes rented to customers under operating lease agreements are estimated for 5 years, modems and routers 3 years. For information on the useful lives of property, plant and equipment, programming assets and other intangible assets with definite useful lives see notes 6j and 6k. For information on the depreciation charge for the period by the category of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with definite useful lives see notes 16 and 20.
Economic useful lives and amortization method of programming assets
Economic useful life of programming assets is based on the shorter of the expected consumption of future economic benefits embodied in an asset and the license period. Amortisation method of programming assets reflects how these economical benefits are consumed. The estimation of the useful life and the amortization method requires assessment of the timing during which the Group is expecting to obtain the income from the acquired programming assets and the percentage apportionment of this income in the given period. For more information about the amortization method and amortization charge for the period by programming assets category see notes 6l and 21.
Indefinite useful life of Polsat, TV4, TV6 and IPLA brands
As at the reporting date, the Group has reviewed whether relevant factors continue to indicate indefinite useful life of Polsat, TV4, TV6 and IPLA brands recognised in 2011-2013 on the acquisition of Telewizja Polsat S.A., Polskie Media S.A. and entities comprising IPLA network.
The Group has reviewed the following factors which are essential for estimating the economic useful life of the Polsat, TV4, TV6 and IPLA brands:
- The expected usage of the asset by the entity and whether the asset could be managed more efficiently
- Technical, technological, commercial or other types of obsolescence
- The stability of the industry in which the asset operates and changes in the market demand for media services
- Expected actions by competitors or potential competitors
- The level of maintenance expenditure required to obtain the expected future economic benefits from the asset
- Whether the useful life of the asset is dependent on the useful life of other asset of the entity.
Having analyzed the above factors, the Group has concluded that there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the Polsat, TV4, TV6 and IPLA brands are expected to generate net cash inflows for the Group and thus the indefinite useful life was assumed. This means that the above brands are not subject to amortization but rather are tested for impairment on annual basis. The Management believes that Polsat, TV4 and TV6 brands have a positive impact on the revenues from advertising and sponsorship and IPLA brand has a positive impact on acquisition of new customers as well as increase of ARPU among current customers of Cyfrowy Polsat. Furthermore, the Polsat brand is widely recognized by media and is highly appreciated in numerous rankings, for example ”Rzeczpospolita” journal’s rankings or BAV Consulting’s rankings. Numerous awards for employees, individuals associated with the brand as well as high Power Ratio index also indicate a strong position of the brand.
As at the balance sheet date the Management states there are no plans to cease using or significantly modify Polsat, TV4, TV6 or IPLA brands. The value assigned to the brands relate to the name “Polsat”, "TV4", “TV6” and “ipla” respectively and the related logotypes both of which are reserved trademarks. In case the Group decides about discontinuance of use or significant modification of the name or logotype the Management would review whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment of the Polsat, TV4, TV6 and IPLA brands and assess whether there are indicators of possible impairment.
Fair value of assets and liabilities of Litenite Ltd. and IT Polpager S.A.
The Group identified assets and liabilities and estimated their fair value under the purchase price allocation process relating to the acquisition of Litenite Ltd. and IT Polpager S.A.. For more information see note 37.
The impairment of goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives
The Group performed impairment test of a goodwill and of the intangible assets with indefinite useful lives (Polsat brand, TV4 and TV6 brands and Ipla brand). The impairment test was based on the value-in-use calculations of the cash-generating unit to which the goodwill and brands have been allocated on the initial recognition. Goodwill and brands with indefinite useful lives have been allocated to the following cash-generating units, which also represent the Group's business segments:
- “Services to individual and business customers” - goodwill recognized on the acquisition of M.Punkt Holdings, goodwill recognized on the acquisition of INFO-TVFM, the goodwill and IPLA brand recognized on the acquisition of entities comprising the IPLA platform, the goodwill recognized on the acquisition of Metelem and the goodwill recognized on the acquisition of Orsen Holding;
- “Broadcasting and television production” - goodwill and Polsat brand recognized on the acquisition of TV Polsat, goodwill and TV4 and TV6 brands recognized on the acquisition of Polskie Media and goodwill recognized on the acquisition of Radio PIN.
The value-in-use calculations included estimation of discounted cash flows for the given cash-generating unit and the relevant discount rate. The value of goodwill and brands tested at each cash-generating unit, the key assumptions used in the value-in-used calculations for each cash-generating unit, impairment test results and sensitivity analysis of reasonably possible changes in the key assumptions are presented in note 19.
The impairment of non-financial non-current assets
As at the reporting date the Group has assessed whether there are any indications that intangible and tangible assets with definite useful lives may be impaired. The impairment loss recognised equals the difference between net book value and recoverable amount. The impairment values are presented in note 16 and 20.
Impairment of receivables
Judgment is required in evaluating the likelihood of collection of customer debt after revenue has been recognized. This evaluation requires estimates to be made including the level of bad debt allowance made for amounts with uncertain recovery profiles. Allowances are based on the probability of receivables collection, and on more detailed reviews of individually significant balances. Depending on the type of the customer and the source of the receivable, the assessment of the probability of receivable collection is done either based on the analysis of individual balances or based on the statistical probability of recoverability for each receivable’s ageing profile. Recoverability rates are defined based on the analysis of the historical recoverability and the customers’ behavior as well as other factors that, according to the Management Board, might influence the recoverability of the receivables. For more information see notes 6o, 25 and 38.
Impairment of inventories
The Group provides for slow-moving or obsolete inventories based on inventory turnover ratios and current marketing plans. The purchase cost or production cost is determined based on weighted average cost method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less selling expenses. For more information see notes 6m and 24.
Provisions for pending litigation
During the normal course of its operations the Group participates in several court proceedings, usually typical and repeatable and which, on an individual basis, are not material for the Group, its financial standing and operations. The provisions are estimated based on the court documentation and the expertise of the Group’s lawyers who participate in the current litigations and who estimate Group’s possible future obligations taking the progress of litigation proceedings into account. The Group also recognizes provisions for potential unreported claims resulting from past events, should the Management Board find that the resulting outflow of economic benefits is likely. Provisions regarding probable claims are recognized as a result of Management Board’s estimates based on accessible information regarding market rates for similar claims. Management believes that the provisions as at 31 December 2016 are sufficient to cover potential future outflows and the adverse outcome of the disputes will not have a significant negative impact on the Group’s financial situation.
Provisions for dismantling
The Group is required to dismantle equipment and restore sites. The provision is based on the best estimate of the amount required to settle the obligation. The provision for the cost of dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site is revised, when necessary, along with the value of the relevant asset. The provision is discounted by applying a discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of the time value of money and the risk specific to the liability. The discount rate used in calculating the provision for dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site is 3.60% as at 31 December 2016. The discounting period reflects the management’s best estimate regarding the expected time of dismantling the assets, taking into account the expiry dates of concessions held by the Group and the expected period of renewal.
Deferred taxes are recognised for all temporary differences, as well as for unused tax losses. The key assumption in relation to deferred tax accounting is the assessment of the expected timing and manner of realization or settlement of the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities held at the reporting date. In particular, assessment is required of whether it is probable that there will be suitable future taxable profits against which any deductible temporary differences can be utilized. At the end of the reporting period unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed. A previously unrecognised deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. For further details refer to note 6x and 13.
Fair value of financial instruments
Fair value of financial instruments for which there is no active market is estimated using appropriate techniques of measurements. The techniques are chosen based on the professional judgment. For more information about the method of establishing the fair value of financial instruments and key assumption made see note 6h.
Loan liabilities measured at amortised cost
The CP Term Facility, the PLK Term Facility, the CP Revolving Facility and the PLK Revolving Facility bear interest at a variable rate equal to WIBOR for the relevant interest period plus margin. The margin on the CP Term Facility, the PLK Term Facility, the CP Revolving Facility and the PLK Revolving Facility depends on the ratio of net consolidated indebtedness to consolidated EBITDA. Accordingly, the Group classifies loan liabilities as variable rate instruments. The Group treats movements in both factors in accordance with IFRS 39 AG7 and the periodic re-estimation of cash flows alters the effective interest rate.